## Why is Darlington array not as efficient as MOSFET as a stepper motor controller?

It is due to the saturation voltage of Darlington pairs, which is normally 1 V. With a load of 1A, the device consumes 1 W. Quite a challenge for cooling…

## Can waves be accelerated?

Yes,  wave can accelerate  . The electron matter  wave  in the atom is an example of a  wave  that keeps changing its direction. The steady state condition of quantum mechanics, however, requires that such a  wave forms eigenmodes of the…

## Why do you need a common ground when driving a device using a MOSFET and an Arduino?

For example, if a battery that drives a device generates 9 volts, it produces a difference of 9 volts at its two terminals. That is, if you measure the voltage at…

## What is motor protection?

Motor protection is the isolation of the motor from the main supply in the event of an abnormal condition in the operating state of an motor (i.e. when the motor…

## Why is earthing required?

Earthing provides a low impedance ground path for power if an insult fails and a live cable comes into contact with an exposed part of a device, causing the device…

## How does a DC motor work?

There are basically two principles that govern a DC motor. How to repel poles of a magnet and tighten them differently. We have all played with magnets and are familiar with…

## What is the switching frequency of a MOSFET to be used for a DC DC buck boost converter?

There is always a tendency to choose a higher frequency to reduce the size of the inductor and capacitor to minimize the size of the converter. However, it does not necessarily…

## What is VDC power?

VDC is an abbreviation for “Volt DC”. DC stands for “direct current”, which means that the voltage is constant (in contrast to alternating current, alternating current, in which the voltage oscillates…

## Why do you need a current limiting resistor to drive an LED if the LED draws only as much current as it requires?

The current consumed by the LEDs is given by (Vin-Vf) / Rs which depends on the applied input voltage Vin, the direct voltage drop of the LEDs Vf and the…

## How electricity generate?

Methods of electricity generation There are seven basic methods to convert other forms of energy directly into electrical energy: Static electricity through physical separation and charge transport (examples: triboelectric effect…

## Why do old vacuum tube amplifiers sound so rich compared to modern Transistor FET amplifiers?

There are mutliple reasons for this: Tube amplifiers produce more even harmonics than solid state amplifiers. Solid state amplifiers, on the other hand, are rich in odd order harmonics. For some evolutionary…

## What is rectifier circuit?

A  rectifier  is an electrical device that consists of one or more diodes and converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). A diode is like a one-way valve, in which electrical…

## How to test a thyristor?

How to test a thyristor (SCR): Obtain a bench DC power supply with adjustable output voltage and current limit. For example 0–30Vdc 0–5A Set the power supply to around 30 Vdc…