What makes sensors work?
Most sensors use radiation such as light or laser, infrared waves or other waves such as ultrasonic waves to detect objects and changes in their surroundings. They can do this by having an energy source in them that allows them to emit radiation towards their target.
The main goal of an electronic sensor is to convert physical environmental parameters into electrical parameters [i.e. H. voltage or current] Different sensors work in different ways.
A temperature sensor can be made from a substance whose resistance changes as the temperature changes, and this change in resistance is observed using Ohm’s Law and electronic parameters are noted.
Since the physical parameters of the substance are known, this change is represented by temperature units.
The same applies to different sensors. Some changes in strain, resistance, temperature, etc., and these changes are mapped to electrical parameters and used to calculate the physical values.
How do sensors get power?
Sensors can be powered in various ways depending on their design, application, and specific requirements. Here are a few common methods of powering sensors:
1. Battery power: Many sensors, especially portable or wireless ones, are powered by batteries. These sensors typically contain their own internal power source, such as disposable or rechargeable batteries. Battery-powered sensors offer flexibility in terms of installation location and can operate independently of external power sources.
2. Wired power supply: Some sensors are connected directly to an external power supply using wires or cables. In this case, the sensor receives power from the same source that powers the overall system or device. This method is often used for sensors that are part of a larger electronic system or are installed in fixed locations where a wired power connection is feasible.
3. Power over Ethernet (PoE): PoE is a technology that allows both power and data to be transmitted over Ethernet cables. PoE-enabled sensors receive power through the Ethernet connection, eliminating the need for separate power cables. This method is commonly used in networked sensor applications, such as surveillance cameras, access control systems, and industrial automation.
4. Inductive coupling: Inductive coupling involves transferring power wirelessly through electromagnetic fields. This method is used in some wireless sensors that utilize inductive charging. The sensor is equipped with a receiving coil that captures the electromagnetic energy emitted by a corresponding charging pad or transmitter. The captured energy is then converted into electrical power to operate the sensor.
5. Solar power: Sensors deployed in outdoor or remote locations can be powered by solar energy. These sensors are equipped with solar panels that convert sunlight into electrical energy, which is used to power the sensor or charge an internal battery. Solar-powered sensors are commonly used in environmental monitoring, agriculture, and remote sensing applications.
It’s important to note that the power requirements of sensors can vary significantly depending on factors such as their functionality, communication methods, and power consumption. Therefore, the choice of power source and supply method should be carefully considered to ensure the sensor operates reliably and efficiently in its intended application.