The efficiency of an air-core transformer tends to be lower compared to transformers with a magnetic core because air has lower permeability, which reduces the magnetic coupling between the windings. This lower coupling results in more losses and less efficient energy transfer.

To improve the efficiency of an air-core transformer, several approaches can be considered. One method is to increase the number of turns in the windings, which enhances the magnetic coupling and thereby improves the transformer’s efficiency. Additionally, using high-conductivity materials for the windings and reducing the resistance of the conductors can help minimize losses and increase efficiency.

The efficiency of a transformer, whether it is air-core or not, depends on several factors including core material, winding design, operating frequency, and load characteristics. Modern transformers designed with efficient materials and optimized winding configurations can achieve high efficiency ratings, often exceeding 95%.

Improving the efficiency of a transformer can be achieved through various means. Using high-quality core materials with low hysteresis and eddy current losses, optimizing winding designs to minimize leakage flux, and reducing resistive losses in conductors are effective strategies. Additionally, maintaining proper cooling and ensuring optimal operating conditions can contribute to higher efficiency.

Increasing the number of turns in the windings, using materials with low magnetic reluctance, and minimizing resistive losses are factors that typically increase the efficiency of a transformer. These measures enhance magnetic coupling, reduce losses, and improve the overall energy transfer efficiency of the transformer.