how do transformers work ?

1. Transformers operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction to change the voltage levels of alternating current (AC). At its core, a transformer consists of two coils of wire, known as the primary and secondary windings, which are wrapped around a common magnetic core. When an alternating current flows through the primary winding, it generates a changing magnetic field in the core. According to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, this changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary winding. The voltage induced in the secondary winding depends on the ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings.
2. In simple terms, a transformer works by transferring electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. It consists of a magnetic core made of ferromagnetic material and two or more coils of insulated wire, known as windings. When an alternating current (AC) flows through the primary winding, it creates a changing magnetic field in the core. This changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary winding through electromagnetic induction. The ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input voltage to the output voltage. Thus, transformers can step up (increase) or step down (decrease) the voltage level depending on the application.
3. The working process of a transformer involves the interaction of magnetic fields and electrical currents to transfer energy between two or more circuits. It operates based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where a changing magnetic field induces a voltage in a nearby conductor. A transformer consists of primary and secondary windings wound around a ferromagnetic core. When an alternating current (AC) flows through the primary winding, it produces a changing magnetic flux in the core. This changing magnetic flux induces an electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding according to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. The ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary windings determines the transformation ratio, which determines how much the voltage is stepped up or stepped down in the secondary winding relative to the primary winding.
4. Transformers change voltage through mutual induction between the primary and secondary windings. When an alternating current (AC) flows through the primary winding, it creates a magnetic field in the transformer core. This magnetic field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary winding due to the changing magnetic flux passing through it. The ratio of the number of turns in the primary winding (N1) to the number of turns in the secondary winding (N2) determines the voltage transformation ratio. For a step-up transformer, where N2 > N1, the secondary voltage is higher than the primary voltage. Conversely, for a step-down transformer, where N2 < N1, the secondary voltage is lower than the primary voltage.
5. Transformers do not work with direct current (DC) in the same way they do with alternating current (AC) due to the nature of electromagnetic induction. In AC transformers, the changing magnetic field induced by alternating current in the primary winding induces a voltage in the secondary winding through electromagnetic induction. This induced voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux. In contrast, DC does not change polarity or create a changing magnetic flux, which is essential for inducing a voltage in the secondary winding of a transformer. Therefore, transformers are not effective for converting or transferring direct current (DC) voltage levels and are primarily used in AC applications where they can efficiently step up or step down voltages as needed.