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Why is high resistance connected to galvanometer in potentiometer ?

A high resistance is connected in series with a galvanometer in a potentiometer to minimize the current flowing through the galvanometer and prevent it from drawing excessive current. The potentiometer is a device used for measuring electromotive force (emf) or potential difference accurately. The inclusion of a high resistance in series with the galvanometer serves several important purposes:

  1. Current Limitation: Galvanometers are sensitive devices that can be easily damaged if subjected to high currents. By connecting a high resistance in series, the current flowing through the galvanometer is limited, protecting it from potential damage. The high resistance ensures that only a small fraction of the current passes through the galvanometer.
  2. Voltage Sensitivity: The potentiometer operates based on the principle of a voltage divider. The potential gradient along the potentiometer wire is used to compare and measure unknown emf or potential difference. The galvanometer detects the null point, where the potential difference across its terminals is zero. The high resistance in series helps maintain this sensitivity by ensuring that the current flowing through the wire is small, minimizing voltage drops along the potentiometer.
  3. Minimizing Loading Effect: The addition of a high resistance reduces the loading effect on the circuit being measured. If the galvanometer drew significant current, it could affect the accuracy of the measurements by altering the potential distribution along the potentiometer wire.

In summary, connecting a high resistance in series with a galvanometer in a potentiometer is a crucial aspect of the design to protect the galvanometer, maintain voltage sensitivity, and minimize loading effects, ensuring accurate and reliable measurements.

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