Why is a current lethal for the body ?

Electric current is lethal to the body primarily because it interferes with the normal electrical signals that control the heart, nerves, and muscles. When a person comes into contact with an electric current, the current flows through the body, following the path of least resistance, typically through the tissues with high water content, such as blood vessels, nerves, and muscles. The flow of current can disrupt the natural electrical impulses that coordinate the heartbeat, leading to arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) or cardiac arrest.

Electric current is dangerous to the human body due to its ability to cause thermal burns and tissue damage as it passes through the body. The resistance of human tissues to electrical current generates heat, which can burn the skin and internal organs along the path of the current. Additionally, the rapid muscle contractions caused by the electric shock can lead to fractures, dislocations, and internal injuries. The severity of injuries depends on factors such as the magnitude of the current, duration of exposure, and the pathway the current takes through the body.

Current can kill humans due to its effects on vital organs, particularly the heart and respiratory muscles. High-voltage electric shocks can cause immediate cardiac arrest by disrupting the heart’s electrical system, leading to ventricular fibrillation (rapid and irregular heartbeats) or ventricular tachycardia (fast heart rate). Low-voltage shocks can also be fatal if they cause paralysis of the respiratory muscles, leading to asphyxiation. Additionally, electrical injuries can result in secondary complications such as kidney failure, neurological damage, and infections, which can contribute to mortality.

The cause of death due to electric current typically involves cardiac arrest or respiratory failure induced by the effects of the shock on the body’s electrical and physiological systems. Electric shocks disrupt the normal function of nerves and muscles, including the heart muscle, which can lead to fatal arrhythmias or complete cessation of heart activity. In cases where the shock affects the respiratory muscles or causes paralysis, death may occur due to inability to breathe properly. The severity of injury and potential for death depend on the type and intensity of the electric current, the pathway through the body, and the promptness of medical intervention.

When electric current passes through the body, it can cause a range of physiological effects depending on factors such as current magnitude, duration of exposure, and pathway through the body. Low levels of current may cause tingling sensations, muscle contractions (tetany), and pain. Moderate currents can lead to severe muscle spasms, burns, and tissue damage. High currents, especially those exceeding certain thresholds, can induce cardiac arrest, respiratory paralysis, and extensive tissue destruction. The passage of current through tissues generates heat, which can cause thermal burns and damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs. Immediate medical attention is crucial to assess and manage the effects of electric shock to minimize long-term consequences and complications.

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