High Voltage (HV) and Low Voltage (LV) windings in a transformer refer to the different coils or sections of wire wrapped around the transformer’s core, each designed to handle specific voltage levels. The HV winding is the coil where the higher voltage is applied, while the LV winding is responsible for the lower voltage output.
In a typical power transformer, there are two primary windings: the HV winding connected to the high-voltage power source and the LV winding connected to the load or lower-voltage system. The transformer operates based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When an alternating current flows through the HV winding, it produces a magnetic field in the transformer core. This magnetic field induces a voltage in the LV winding through electromagnetic induction, allowing for voltage transformation.
The number of turns in the HV winding is usually greater than that in the LV winding, reflecting the voltage step-up function of the transformer. As electricity passes through the HV winding, it induces a higher voltage in the LV winding, enabling the transmission of electrical power over long distances with reduced energy loss.
The insulation between the HV and LV windings is crucial to prevent electrical breakdown and ensure the safe and efficient operation of the transformer. Transformers play a vital role in electrical power systems by facilitating the transmission and distribution of power at different voltage levels, making them an integral component in electricity networks worldwide.