Function of inductors and capacitors

Function of inductors and capacitors

Both are energy storage devices that store energy and perform various functions in electrical and electronic circuits.

Differences between them are as follows:

  • Capacitor is a device with two dielectric-separated conductive surfaces, which is essentially an insulator with additional polarization property.
  • The inductor is a wound conductor with a core with magnetic properties.
  • Capacitors store energy in the electric field.
  • Inductors store energy in the magnetic field.
  • Capacitor counteracts voltage change.
  • Inductance resists current change.

The current in the ideal capacitor leads the voltage by 90 degrees. The current in the ideal inductance lags the voltage by 90 degrees Both are reactive components and do not consume energy except for a small loss component in practical elements.

Induction properties are useful for working with most electrical machines. This causes a power delay factor that increases a current component that is not useful for direct work, but consumes generator, transmission, and distribution capacity.

The capacitor draws the main power factor and can neutralize the wake-up current, thereby enabling the generator and network capacity for optimal usage.

Inductors and capacitors together form resonant devices which are useful for oscillators and the generation of frequencies and also make up a major part of the transmission and reception of radio signals. Both elements together can be used as excellent filters for rectifier circuits as well as for high pass / low pass filters. They are essential components of electrical and electronic equipment and circuits.

What is the use of inductors in a circuit?

  • The inductor can store energy in its magnetic field.
  • The inductance is opposite to the flow current. So we can use it wherever it is.
  • Induction coils are used in transmission lines to adjust the transmission end voltage and the reception end voltage under lightly loaded conditions.
  • In electronics, an inductance can be used as a safety device to block sudden current changes.
  • In tube light circuits, an induction coil is used to increase the instantaneous voltage high enough to ionize the tube.
  • It is used to filter out harmonics from the circuit.
  • It is used in series with the output to improve the output. It is used in an oscillator circuit.

What are the functions of an inductor and a capacitor in the filter circuit?

capacitive reactance DECREASES with frequency as inductive reactance increases with frequency. By creating a circuit with one type of reactance in one direction and another type of reactance in a different direction, you can “steer” some frequencies for the better and some frequencies for the worse.

For example, if you want to block a 5 MHz signal, while everything else can happen above and below, create a clever array of circuit paths that promotes the shorting of the 5 MHz frequency to earth while creating different paths, all the others Stimulate frequencies to pass through.

Lowpass, highpass, bandpass and bandstop filters can all be designed using selected capacitance and inductance values and produce multiple filter stages with passive or even active stages. Selecting component values to optimize filter response can be done by humps or experimentally when designing a relatively low order (simple) filter.

However, if you need a higher-order filter with extremely sharp selectivity, ultra-low ripple, or other interesting features, you’ll be spellbound into incredibly crazy Russian math-level mathematics, or you could simply indulge your soul in a digital computer filter design program.

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