Resistance, by definition, is independent of frequency in ideal resistors. In other words, the resistance value remains constant regardless of the frequency of the applied AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) signal. This characteristic stems from the fundamental definition of resistance as the ratio of voltage to current in a conductor, which is purely a function of the material and dimensions of the resistor. Therefore, changes in frequency do not alter the resistance of an ideal resistor, making it a predictable and stable component in electronic circuits.

However, in real-world resistors, especially those with wire wound or film types, there can be some dependency on frequency due to parasitic inductance and capacitance effects. These parasitic components can introduce small variations in resistance at high frequencies, causing the resistor to behave slightly differently compared to its DC behavior. Engineers take these effects into account in high-frequency applications where precise resistance values are critical.

Resistance primarily depends on the material from which the resistor is made and its physical dimensions, such as length, cross-sectional area, and temperature. Different materials exhibit varying degrees of resistance to the flow of electrical current, known as resistivity. For example, metals typically have low resistivity compared to non-conductive materials like ceramics or carbon films. The physical dimensions of the resistor also affect resistance: longer resistors have higher resistance, while wider resistors have lower resistance. Temperature changes can also affect resistance due to changes in the material’s resistivity.

Resistance in a resistor does not change with frequency because resistance is fundamentally a property of the material and dimensions of the resistor itself. It represents the opposition to the flow of electrical current, which is independent of the rate at which the current alternates (frequency). This principle holds true for both DC and AC circuits, ensuring that resistors provide consistent performance in terms of voltage-current relationship regardless of the frequency of the applied signal.

Resistance depends primarily on the material’s resistivity and the physical dimensions of the resistor. Resistivity is an inherent property of the material, reflecting its ability to impede the flow of electric current. For instance, materials with high resistivity, such as ceramics or certain polymers, exhibit higher resistance compared to conductive metals like copper or aluminum. Additionally, the physical dimensions of the resistor—such as length, cross-sectional area, and temperature—directly influence its resistance value. Together, these factors determine the specific resistance value of a resistor, ensuring its predictable behavior in electronic circuits.