Voltage and current are fundamental electrical quantities that are closely related. Voltage, often measured in volts (V), is the potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit. Current, measured in amperes (A), is the flow of electric charge carriers, typically electrons, through a conductor. The relationship between voltage and current is described by Ohm’s Law, which states that voltage (V) equals current (I) multiplied by resistance (R), or V = IR. This means that in a given circuit, if the resistance is constant, an increase in voltage will result in a proportional increase in current, and vice versa.

In a series circuit, where components are connected end to end, the relationship between voltage and current is straightforward. The same current flows through each component because there is only one path for the current to take. According to Ohm’s Law, the total voltage across the series circuit is equal to the sum of the voltages across each component. Therefore, the voltage across each component depends on its resistance and the current flowing through the circuit.

Power in an electrical circuit is the rate at which electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy, such as heat, light, or mechanical work. The power (P) in a circuit is calculated using the formula P = VI, where V is the voltage and I is the current. This shows that power is directly proportional to both voltage and current. Increasing either voltage or current will increase the power consumed by the circuit.

Voltage and current are interdependent in an electrical circuit. Voltage creates an electric field that causes electric charges to flow (current) through a conductor. The magnitude of the current depends on the voltage applied and the resistance of the conductor. Higher voltages provide the necessary energy to move charges through a circuit, resulting in higher currents, assuming the resistance remains constant.

Voltage and current are directly proportional under certain conditions, particularly in materials with a constant resistance (Ohmic conductors). Ohm’s Law, V = IR, illustrates this direct proportionality: if voltage increases, current increases proportionally, and if voltage decreases, current decreases proportionally, assuming the resistance remains unchanged. However, this direct proportionality may not hold in all materials or under all conditions, such as in semiconductors or components with non-linear characteristics.