How transistor can be used as a switch?

With a zero signal applied to the base of the transistor, it rotates “OFF” by acting as an open switch and zero collector current. The easiest way to change moderate…

How do NPN transistors work?

The standard bipolar or BJT transistor is presented in two basic forms. An NPN type (Negative-Positive-Negative) and a PNP type (Positive-Negative-Positive). The most commonly used transistor configuration is the NPN…

How does a photo diode work?

Let’s talk about Photodiode operation in circuits. The operating principle of a photodiode is when a large-energy photon strikes the diode, creating a pair of electrons. This mechanism is also…

How does an infrared detector work?

An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation. The two main types of detectors are thermal and photonic (photodetectors). The thermal effects of incident IR radiation…

How does IR sensors work?

An infrared sensor is an electronic tool that is used to detect certain environmental characteristics by emitting and / or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors can also measure the heat…

How does a photodetector work?

A photodiode is a semiconductor device with a p-n junction and an intrinsic layer between layers p and n. It produces photocurrent in the generation of electron-hole pairs due to…

How do you test a transistor?

Connect the marked terminal as positive, first to the collector and measure the resistance. Then take it to the transmitter. In both cases, the counter must deviate (indicate open circuit…

How do you test a diode?

Set up the multimeter to measure AC or DC voltage as needed. Turn the dial to the resistance mode (Ω). It may share a space on the dial with another…

Which way does a diode go?

Think of a diode as a one-way street for electricity. When the diode is in the feed direction, the diode allows circulation or current from the anode to the cathode…

How does a chiral column work?

Chromatographic column chromatography is a variant of column chromatography in which the stationary phase contains a single enantiomer of a chiral compound rather than an achiral. … As with all…

How do you separate two enantiomers?

The separation of a raceme in its components, pure enantiomers, is called chiral resolution. There are various methods, including crystallization, chromatography and the use of enzymes. To effectively differentiate both…

What are the different types of isomers?

STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM The isomers can be divided into two large groups: structural (or constitutional) isomers and stereoisomers. We will first consider the structural isomers, which can be divided again into…

Google serves cookies to analyze traffic to this site and for serving personalized ads. Learn more