Can there be a potential difference without current?

Yes, there can be a potential difference (voltage) without current flowing. Potential difference, or voltage, is a measure of the electric potential energy per unit charge between two points in an electric circuit. It exists regardless of whether current is actually flowing between those points at any given moment. For example, a battery or power source can establish a potential difference between its terminals even when no current is drawn from it.

Potential (voltage) exists independently of current. It represents the electrical potential energy per unit charge at a specific point in an electric circuit. This potential is established by a power source or voltage difference between two points, irrespective of whether current is flowing through the circuit or not.

To calculate potential difference (voltage) without current, you measure the voltage between two points in the circuit using a voltmeter. The potential difference is simply the numerical difference in voltage readings between these two points. This calculation can be done at any time, regardless of whether there is current flowing through the circuit or not.

When no current is flowing through a circuit, the potential difference between two points remains the same as when current is flowing, provided the circuit conditions and components remain unchanged. The voltage measurement reflects the potential energy difference between those points, regardless of whether current is present to carry charges through the circuit.

You may observe voltage but no current due to several reasons. It could indicate an open circuit where there is a break in the continuity of the circuit path, preventing current flow despite the presence of potential difference (voltage). Alternatively, it could be due to a very high resistance in the circuit that limits current flow to such a low level that it is undetectable by the measuring instruments. Other factors such as faulty connections, switch positions, or component failures can also result in voltage being present without accompanying current flow in an electric circuit.