A capacitor is a passive electrical component with two terminals that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacity.
While there is capacity between any two electrical conductors in a nearby circuit, a capacitor is specifically designed to provide and amplify this effect for a variety of practical applications, taking into account the size, shape and positioning of nearby conductors. Dielectric material Therefore, a capacitor was historically known as an electric capacitor.
The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitors are commonly used. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors, often in the form of metal plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric environment. A conductor can be a sheet, a thin film, a sintered metal pellet or an electrolyte.
The non-conductive dielectric acts to increase the capacity of the capacitor. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramics, plastic, paper, mica and oxide layers. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy.
The capacity or storage capacity of capacitors is measured in units called farad. A 1-phase capacitor can store a 1 volt coulomb (co-lumbar). A coulomb is 6.25e18 (6.25 * 10 ^ 18, or 6.25 billion electrons). An amplifier represents an electron flow rate of 1 coulomb of electrons per second, so that a 1-farad capacitor can contain 1 amp-sec of electrons at 1 volt.
A 1-farad capacitor would normally be quite large. It could be as big as a tuna box or a 1 liter siphon bottle, depending on the stress it can withstand. For this reason, capacitors are usually measured in microfarads (millions of farads).