Is it possible to charge a capacitor at any potential?
only until the working voltage. beyond that, it causes a breakdown. you can charge a capacitor at any potential as long as the charging voltage is lower than the nominal voltage value of the capacitor.
yes, but you must apply a higher potential than the one already present on the capacitor. However, all capacitors have a voltage limit beyond which the electrical is broken and the capacitor destroys.
inside the capacitor, the potential difference between the conductive plates generates a capacitance. there is a limit to dielectric breakdown. even emptiness has a limit. you can therefore charge a capacitor at a potential lower than the breaking potential of any of its parts.
It is customary to have a safety margin and you should have it if you want some reliability.
some capabilities only accept being loaded at the maximum voltage printed in one direction. in the opposite direction, the allowed voltage is much lower. these electrolytic capacitors have the appropriate polarity marked on the package.
a capacitor consists of two conductors insulated by a dielectric. it is the type and shape of the dielectric that defines the insulating capacity. a capacitor can keep the vintage at a point where this voltage begins to run across the insulator. thus, a capacitor can contain any voltage up to the insulation voltage of the dielectric.
a capacitor has a designated working voltage. If you exceed the threshold, the plates separated by a dielectric short / burn and the capacitor is dead.
to the working voltage, discover the RC time constant. this will tell how long it will take to reach a full charge. there will be a point where the electric field gradient between the plates will be so important that the dielectric will decompose and drive.
most practical capacitors are marked with a nominal operating voltage not to be exceeded.
theoretically, it is possible to build a capacitor capable of storing any voltage , like huge capacitor plates. the existence of lightning, however, shows strikingly that, without a perfect dielectric (for example, a perfect vacuum), a capacitor can only be charged to the breakdown voltage of its dielectric material. no, a capacitor has a voltage limit amount to load. if we exceed the rated voltage to charge it. we will affect the life of the capacitor even if it may swell and burst or burn.
Capacitors have a specific voltage rating and are printed on the surface of their bodies. we must take care of our capacitor when we want to charge them. When we want to identify weather conditions, a capacitor is normal or defective in a DC circuit, the first step is to remove a terminal from the printed circuit board and measure its continuity after discharging the voltage already present.
Vacuum capacitors of 60 kv are available on the market and you can even get 100 kv. the output of the 100 kv rectifier can be designed. This type of high voltage rectifier is used for HV switching tests.
Even higher voltages are achieved with charged spherical capacitors at such high voltages and then connected in series.
Switchgears of 220 kv or higher are tested to determine their impulse, by connecting these high voltage spherical capacitors in series and creating a high level hv voltage required. these are discharged via a pulse transformer using spark gaps to create the extremely high required voltage.
such high voltage tests are performed in high voltage laboratories located in special rooms and occupy considerable space and complex installation.