The separation of a raceme in its components, pure enantiomers, is called chiral resolution. There are various methods, including crystallization, chromatography and the use of enzymes.
To effectively differentiate both enantiomers, it is possible to use an enantiopure amine to form a salt with carboxylic acid. So you created two diastereomers from the combination of chiral molecules. Because the physical properties of diastereomers are different, you can separate them.
It is one of the two stereoisomers that are mirror images that overlap (not identical), as left and right hands are identical, except that they are inverted along an axis (hands do not become identical simply by reorientation). A single chiral atom or a similar structural feature in determining that the compound is a compound having two possible non-overlapping structures, each of which is a mirror image of the other. Each member of the couple is called enantiomorfo (enantio = opus; morph = form); structural property is called enantiomerism. The presence of multiple chiral elements in a given compound increases the number of possible geometric shapes, although there may be perfect mirror image pairs of.
Enantiopathic compounds refer to samples that have, within the limits of detection, individual chirality molecules.
When present in a symmetrical environment, enantiomers have identical chemical and physical properties, except for their ability to rotate polarized light plane (+/-) in equal amounts, but in opposite directions (although polarized light can be considered as an asymmetric medium). Sometimes they are called optical isomers for this reason. A mixture in equal parts of an optically active isomer and its enantiomer is defined racemic and has a flat light polarized net net rotation as the rotation of the positive of each form (+) corresponds exactly from the rotation of a negative of (-) to .
Enantiomers often have different chemical reactions with other enantiomeric substances. Because many biological molecules are enantiomers, there is sometimes a significant difference in the effects of two enantiomers on biological organisms. In drugs, for example, often only one of the enantiomers of a drug is responsible for the desired physiological effects, while the other enantiomer is less active, inactive or sometimes even productive of adverse effects. Because of this discovery, the drugs consisting of an enantiomer (“enantiopura”) can be developed to increase the effectiveness of pharmacological and sometimes to remove some side effects.
An example is esopopiclone (Lunesta), which is enantiopuro, and is then administered in doses that are exactly 1/2 of the oldest racemic mixture, called zopiclone. In the case of the esopiclone, the S enantiomer is responsible for all the desired effects, while the other enantiomer appears to be inactive.