How transistor can be used as a switch?

With a zero signal applied to the base of the transistor, it rotates “OFF” by acting as an open switch and zero collector current. The easiest way to change moderate to big power is to use the transistor with an open collector output and the transistor emitter terminal directly connected

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How do NPN transistors work?

The standard bipolar or BJT transistor is presented in two basic forms. An NPN type (Negative-Positive-Negative) and a PNP type (Positive-Negative-Positive). The most commonly used transistor configuration is the NPN transistor. We have also learned that the bipolar transistor junctions can be polarized in one of three ways: Common Base,

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What is the dark current of a photodiode?

When the photo transistor is placed in the dark and a voltage is applied from the collector to the transmitter, a certain amount of current flows. This current is called dark current (ID). This current consists of the leakage current of the collector base junction multiplied by the DC gain

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How do photodiode arrays work?

Working of photodiode How does photodiode work : A photodiode array (PDA) is a linear range of discrete photodiodes on an integrated circuit (IC). For spectroscopy it is placed at the image level of a spectrometer to allow simultaneous detection of a wavelength. In this sense, it can be considered

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How does a photo diode work?

Let’s talk about Photodiode operation in circuits. The operating principle of a photodiode is when a large-energy photon strikes the diode, creating a pair of electrons. This mechanism is also called the internal photoelectric effect. If absorption occurs at the junction of the depletion region, the bearers are removed from

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What is a photo diode?

A photodiode is a type of light detector used to convert light into current or voltage depending on how the device works. Contains optical filters, integrated lenses and surfaces. These diodes have a slow response time when the surface of the photodiode increases. The photodiodes are similar to normal semiconductor

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What is the voltage follower?

A voltage follower (also called unit gain amplifier, buffer amplifier and isolation amplifier) ​​is an op-amp circuit that has a voltage gain of 1. This means that the operational amplifier does not provide any signal amplification. The reason why a voltage follower is called is because the output voltage directly

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What is the lm386?

If you build a microcontroller sound sensor, you can install it on an LM386 based amplifier. It’s cheap, easily available and does not require too many external parts. A nice feature of the LM386 is that it can drive a small speaker. This allows you to design and test the

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What is the function of lm339?

A dedicated voltage comparator will generally be faster than an operational amplifier for general use put into operation as a comparator. A dedicated voltage comparator can also contain additional functions such as a precise internal voltage reference, an adjustable hysteresis and a clock input. A dedicated voltage comparison chip, such

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What is an op amp and how does it work?

Well, the idea is to insert two electrical signals into the inputs, so the output changes accordingly. This takes the difference between the inputs and amplifications, then the operational amplifier or the operational amplifier. You may have noticed that input A has a minus sign, and entry B has a

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What is the use of IC lm358?

The LM358 is a dual-core, dual-core, low-power operational amplifier, originally initiated by National Semiconductor. It is used in detection circuits. The LM358 abbreviation indicates an 8-pin integrated circuit that includes two low-power operational amplifiers. IC or integrated circuit is a small black chip, it is a root of modern electronics

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How does IR sensors work?

An infrared sensor is an electronic tool that is used to detect certain environmental characteristics by emitting and / or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared sensors can also measure the heat emitted by an object and detect movement. Infrared waves are not visible to the human eye. In the electromagnetic spectrum,

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